Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 45-50
Effects of Pharmaceutical Effluents on the Chemical. Composition of Various Vegetables in Sahiwal Region Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Nasir Javed, Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Sami Ullah, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Abid Ali, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Zeshan, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Kanwal Shehzadi, Department of Chemistary Govt.Post Graduate College Samnabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Khalid, Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Received: Jan. 2, 2020;       Accepted: Feb. 27, 2020;       Published: May 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.cbe.20200502.11      View  307      Downloads  51
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of toxic metals such as Lead (pb), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Cadmium (Cd) in pharmaceutical effluents, agricultural soil and vegetables (Pumpkin, Green Chilli and Spinach) in Sahiwal Region, Punjab, Pakistan, where many pharmaceutical industries producing effluents that contain toxic metals, reagents, organic compounds and catalyst. These pharmaceutical effluents are being used for irrigation purpose. Different samples of efflents, soil and vegitables analysed. Though the detected amounts are exceeded from WHO irrigation limits in water samples other than zinc. The analysis of soil sample showed that All metals were exceeding the controlled sample and WHO limits. The testing in vegetables samples showed that all the metals exceeded the permissible limit other than Fe and it was concluded that agricultural soil and vegetables of small industrial estate area of Sahiwal region were contaminated by increasing concentration of toxic metals due to untreated pharmaceutical effluents. There is a need of regular monitoring of pharmaceutiocal effluents enterimg into irrigation water sources in order to save quality of vegatables and health hazards.
Pharmaceutical Effluents, Soil, Vegetables, Toxic Metals
To cite this article
Muhammad Nasir Javed, Sami Ullah, Abid Ali, Muhammad Zeshan, Kanwal Shehzadi, Muhammad Khalid, Effects of Pharmaceutical Effluents on the Chemical. Composition of Various Vegetables in Sahiwal Region Punjab, Pakistan, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 45-50. doi: 10.11648/j.cbe.20200502.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Halling, B.; Lanzky, P.; Nielson, S, N.; Ingerslev, F.; Holten, J.; Lutzhoft, S.; Jorgensen, E,; Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment. Chemosphere.. 2002, 35, 357-393.
Duffus, HJ.; Heavy metals IUPAC Technical Report. Pure Appl. Chem. 2002, 74, 793 – 807 Jain, CK.; Bandypadhyay, A.; Bhadra, A.; Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environment Monitoring Assessment. 2010, 166, 663–676.
Colburn, T.; Clement, C.; Chemically – Induced alterations in sexual and functional development. The wildlife/Human connection, advances in modern environment taxonomy. Princeton Scientific, Princeton. 1992, 21, 129-145.
Rang, H. P.; and Dale, M. M.; Dales pharmacology, Churchill livingstone. Second addition, 1991, 15, 955-980.
Daughton, C. G.; Ternes, T. A,; Pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1999, 107, 907-938.
Federal Environment Protection Agency FEPA FG Press Lagos Nigeria. 238.
Ezenobi, N. O.; Okpokwasili, G. C.; Responding to oil spills in the US. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, 2004, 18, 1-2.
Watts, C.; Crane, M.; Boucard, T.; Chronic environmental risk exposure to human pharmaceuticals. Science of the total Environment, 2006, 367, 23-41.
Quinn, B.; Gagne, F.; Blaise, Evaluation of acute, chronic and teratogenic effects of mixture of eleven pharmaceutical on cnidarian. Science of the total environment. 2008, 389, 1072-1079.
Klaine, S.; Gaworecki, G.; Behavioral and biochemical response of hybrid striped bass during and after fluoxetine exposure. Aquatic toxicology, 2008, 88, 207-213.
Chambliss, C.; Stanley, J.; Ramirez, A.; Brook, W.; enatinspecific sublethal effects of antidepressant fluoxetine to a model aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate. Chemosphere, 2007, 69, 9-16.
Turner, P.; Brooks, B.; Stanley, J.; Weston, J.; Glidewell, E,; Foran, C.; Slattery, M.; Point, W.; Hugget, D.; water born and sediment toxicity of fluoxetine to organism. chemosphere, 2003, 52, 135-142.
Nentwing, G.; effects of pharmaceutical on aquatic invertibrates. environmenal contamination and toxicology, 2007, 52, 163-170.
Castiglioni, S.; Pomti, F.; Zuccato, E.; Fanelli, R.; Vigetti, D.; Calamari, D.; effects of mixture of complex therapeutic drugs at environmental level on human emberyonic cell. Environmental sceience and technology, 2006, 40, 2442-2447.
Brain, R.; Sanderson, H.; Johnson, D.; Reitsma T.; Wilson, C.; Solomon, K.; regulatory and pharmacology, 2004, 39 (2) 39, 158-164.
Kumar, H. D.; Modern Concept of Ecology, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. 1990, 29, 218-75.
Agrawal, S. K.; Swanlalat, R.; and Deubey, P. S.; Biodiversity and Environment. New Delhi.. APH Publishing Corporation, 1996, 179-184.
Ternes, T.; technologies assessment for the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products in sewage and drinking water to improve the indirect potable water reuse. 2004, EU EVKI-CT-2000-2047.
Koenig, B.; Metcalfe, C.; Hirsh, R.; Druges in sewages reatment plants effluents in Canada, 2000, proceedings, American chemical society national meeting- spring, san Francisco, CA, 100-104.
Franks, F.; and Ives, D. G.; The structural properties of alcohol-water mixtures. Q. Rev. Chem. Soc. 1966, 20, 1-44.
Panday, J. D.; Shukla, A.; Rai, R. D.; Mishra, K. J.; Ultrasonic, volumetric and viscometric studies of tetracycline and its allied compound. J. Chem. Eng. Data. 1989, 34, 29-31.
Snow, E.; Tanaka, A.; Alam, M.; Arsenic and heavy metal concentration of vegetables grown in Samta village Bangladesh. The science of total environment, 2003, 111, 811-815.
Mohon, D.; Singh, K.; Dalwani, R.; assessment of unwanted waste water, chemosphere, 2004, 55, 227-235.
Jarup, L.; Hazrds of heavy metal contamination, British med. Bull, 2003, 68, 167-182.
Parikh, D.; Sathawara, N,; Agarwal, Y.; Essential heavy metal in environment samples. Environ contam. toxicol, 2004, 73, 264-269.
Pyatt, F.; Wilson, B.; Heavy metal dipersion persistence and bioaccumulation around an ancient an ancient copper mine situated Anglesey UK. Ecotoxicol environ Saf. 2007, 66, 224–231.
WHO. World health organization Sixty-First Report of the joint FAO/WHO Series, 2004, 922; Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants.
Pendias, A.; Pendias, heavy metals in plants and soils. FL, United state CRC press 2000, 3, 3-11.
Staney, S.; Malcolm, S.; The sedimen environment in sediment microbiology. Eds. Nedell D. B. and brown C. M, publishers 1982. Academic press ins. London.
Yagi, M.; Nakashima, S.; Aoyama, I,; analysis of chemical fractions of heavy metals. Nogacu Kenkye, 1985 ,(4) 150-157.
Khan, M, H.; Yasmin, N.; Metallic pollution in water and food items of industrial city by atomic absorption spectroscopy, Pak. J. Bio. Sci., 2003, 6 (14) 1276-1281.
Soon, Y. K.; Bates, T. E.; Moyer, J. R.; “Land Application of Chemically Treated Sewage Sludge II. Effects on Plant and Soil Phosphorus. Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium and Soil pH.” J. Environ. Qual. 1978, 7, 269-74.
Page, A. L.; Miller, R. H.; Keeney, D. R.; Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2—Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd edition, Agronomy 9. ASA, Madison, WI. (Eds.), 1986, 1159-1172.
Al-Subu, M. M.; Salim, R.; Douleh, A.; Atallah, A.; Combined effects of Cadmium, Lead and Copper on the growth and on metal uptake of broad beans, carrots, radishes and marrow vegetables. Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient. 1993, 9 (1) 1-9.
Islam, Md.; Lahermo, R.; Salminen, W. P.; Rojstaczer, R., S.; Peuraniemi, V. J.; Lake and reservoir water quality affected by metals leaching from tropical soils, Bangladesh. Environ. Geol., 2000, 39, 1083-1089.
Jamroz, N.; and Burki, A. M.; Drinking water quality in Hatter Industrial Estate (HIE), district Haripur, Pakistan. Pak. J. Anal. Chem., 2002, 3, 1-63.
Sarker, B. C.; Zaman, M. W.; Biswas, J. K.; Rahmatullah, N. M.; Uddin, M. N.; “Ionic Toxicity and Suitability Assessment of Waste Water and Pond Water for Irrigated Agriculture in Narayanganj District of Bangladesh.” Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 2003, 28 (3), 291-300.
Khan, M, H.; Yasmin, N.; Study of metallic pollutants in water and food items of an industrial city by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Pak. J. Bio. Sci., 2003, 6 (14), 1276-1281.
Kosjek, T.; Heath, E.; Krbavcic, A.; Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) residues in water samples. Environ Int 2005 31, 679-685.
Ahmed, J. U.; and Goni, M. A.; “Heavy Metal Contamination in Water, Soil, and Vegetables of the Industrial Areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh.” Environ Monit 2010, 166, 347-357.
Singh, A.; Sharma, R. K.; Agrawal, M.; Marshall, F.; M. Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from wastewater irrigated area of Varanasi, India. Int. Soc. Tropical Ecology, 2010, 52, 375-387.
Khan, K.; Lu, Y.; Khan, H.; Zakir, S.; Ihsanullah, Khan, S.; Khan, A. A.; Wei, L.; Wang, T.; Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan. Journal of Environmental sciences, 2013, 25 (10) 1–10.
Muhammad, S.; Shah, M. T.; Khan, S.; Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb–Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Micro chemical Journal, 2011, 99 (1): 67-75.
Mandour, R. A., Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt. Applied Water Sciences, 2012, 2 (3): 157-163.
Amin, N.; Hussain, A.; Alamzeb, S.; Begum, S.; Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food Chemistry. 2013, 136,(3-4): 1515-1523.
Feleafel, M. N., Mirdad, Z. M., 2013. Hazard and effects of pollution by lead on vegetable crops. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 26 (3): 547567.
Iqbal, J.; Shah, M. H.; Akhter, A.; Characterization, source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in freshwater Rawal Lake, Pakistan. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 2013, 125, 94-101.
Udebuani1, A. C.; Ofoma1. A. O.; Otitoju. O.; Abara P. P. N.; Ezejiofor T. N.; Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Impacts of Pharmaceutical Effluent from KP Pharmaceutical Industry, ACSJ. 27604, 2016, 16 (2): 1-10.
Shruthi, L.; Shyni. K.; Abhilash, B.; Photocatalytic Degradation And Removal of Heavy Metals in Pharmaceutical Waste by Selenium Doped ZnO Nano Composite Semiconductor Journal for Research |2016, 02, 2395-7549.
Hamid, A.; Riaz, H.; Akhtar, S.; Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables, and soil assesment American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 2016, 16 (4): 786-794.
Kachout, S.; Sai, Leclere.; Mansoura, A.; Rejeb, M. N.; and Ouerghi, Z.; Effects of Heavy metals on growth and bioaccumulation of the annual Halophytes Atriplex Hortensis and A. Rosea. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 2009, 5 (7): 746-756.
WHO: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/info_sheet_ pharmaceuticals/ en/index.html accessed on 5 June, 2013,
Ismail, F.; Anjum, M. J.; Mamon, A. N.; Kazi, T. G.; Trace metal contents of vegetables and of Hyderabad Retail Market. PJN. 2011, 10 (4) 365-372.
Khan, S.; Aijun, S.; Zhang, Q. Hu.; Zhu, Y. G.;. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in lettuce grown in the soils contaminated with long-term wastewater irrigation. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008, 152, 506-515.
Mahmood, A.; Malik, R. N.; Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arab J. Chem., 2014. 7, 91-99
-Sarker, B. C.; Baten, M. A.; Haque, M.; Das, A. K.; Hossain, A.; and Hasan, M. Z Heavy Metals Concentration in Textile and Garments Industries’ Wastewater of Bhaluka Industrial Area, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Curr World Environ., 2015, 10 (1): 61-66.
Bashir, F.; Kashmiri, M. A.; Tahira. S.; and Tariq, M.; Heavy metals uptake by vegetables growing in sewage irrigated soil: relationship with heavy metal fractionation in soil. Chem Specia & Bioavail., 2009, 21 (4): 199-209.
NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards), Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Environmental Legislation, 2000.
Sarker, B. C.; Baten, M.; Haque, E.; Das, A.; Hasan, M. Z.; Heavy Metals Concentration in Textile and Garments Industries’ Wastewater of Bhaluka Industrial Area, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Curr World Environ, 2015, 10 (1) 61-66.
World Health Organization (WHO), Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater: Wastewater use in agriculture 2006, (Vol II), World Health Organization. Geneva.
Perveen, S.; Samad, A.; S. Muhammad, M. T.; Shah Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb-Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchem J. 2011, 99 (1), 67-75.
Gogoasa and I. Gergen, Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania. Chem Cen J. 2011. 5, 1-64.
WHO/FAO, 2007. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programmed Codex Aliment Arius Commission 13th Session. Report of the Thirty Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Houston, TX, USA.
Perveen, S. A.; Samad, S.; Muhammad, M. T.; Khan, S.; Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb-Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchem J. 2011, 99, 67-75.
Yargholi, B.; Azimi, A.; Investigation of Cadmium absorption and accumulation in different parts of some vegetables. Am- Euras. J. Agric & Environ. Sci. 2008, 3 (3): 357-364.
Farooq, M.; Anwar, A.; Rashid, U.; Metal contents in vegetables grown on an Industrial area. Pak. J. Bot., 2008, 40 (5) 2099-2106.
Browse journals by subject